Developers of software or designs under test in a security research context must be informed of all vulnerabilities discovered during that research within 90 days of discovery, with no exceptions.

Research strategies and materials capable of discovering previously unknown or undiscoverable vulnerabilities or of discovering known vulnerabilities better than the existing state of the art must be published within 360 days of initial development, with no exceptions.

Ethical Considerations

As researchers, our first and foremost responsibility is to protect others.

If, in any way, something found in the course of research could be used to harm another individual, it is our duty to remediate it to the best of our ability. No exception may be made for personal benefit or allegiance. The mere existence of a vulnerability or security research strategy which could be used to discover vulnerabilities "in the wild" is no different to the existence of a backdoor; if one individual or group may use it, any may for any reason, by rediscovery, espionage, or improper use by a "good" actor.

Thus, it is critical that, regardless of the potential (ab)use of a vulnerability, it is the researcher's responsibility to ensure it is remediated. Similarly, research strategies which prove to discover vulnerabilities must be made available in an accessible, usable format such that developers and end users have the means to protect themselves and prevent future vulnerabilities.


Disclosure Information

All disclosures should contain:

Developers are entitled to information regarding why and how their software or design was targeted and researched. Every reasonable step must be taken by the researcher to ensure that the developer can utilise the provided information, taking into account possible accessibility requirements due to language differences, disability, etc.

Regarding Payment Associated with the Disclosure of Vulnerabilities

Payment should not be expected or sought out, only graciously accepted when offered without prompt.

There's a great deal of things wrong with bug bounties offered by companies (e.g. low payouts considering potential impact, intentional disregard of vulnerability impact by bounty providers, etc.). This does not justify "revenge" public disclosure or failing to disclose; it is the researcher's responsibility to disclose regardless.

Sales of vulnerabilities to private third-parties or governments is unjustifiable as it actively removes the developer's ability to remediate.

Regarding Unwilling Developers

If a developer is unwilling, unreachable, or otherwise will not/cannot remediate a vulnerability, the researcher is responsible for ensuring that the public is made aware of and able to protect themselves from any threat caused by the vulnerability.

In the original disclosure to the developer, a timeline of separate disclosure is provided. This is always included, regardless of whether this e.g. invalidates bug bounty offerings or leads to legal threat1. For each deadline that passes, the

  1. vendor or distributor of the software or design is notified (e.g. Ubuntu foundation, OEMs)
  2. appropriate government is notified (e.g. US-CERT, BSI, etc.)
  3. the public is notified by means of open, widely-available online publication.

Research Strategies and Materials

Just like vulnerability data, research strategies with measurable ability to discover new vulnerabilities or improve upon the state of the art in discovering known vulnerabilities must be published. For the same reasons that vulnerabilities should be disclosed for remediation, strategies or materials capable of discovering vulnerabilities should be made available to the public such that developers or other researchers may use them for remediating new or existing vulnerabilities.

Just like vulnerabilities, retention or sale of research strategies for personal gain or allegiance is unjustifiable. We cannot realistically use our research to its fullest extent, and thus in-effect fail to disclose vulnerabilities discoverable by our research in either case.

Format and Availability

Research ideas, strategies, results, and artifacts must be made publicly available within 360 days of initial development, with no exceptions. It must be published in a format which is accessible and usable by others with a reasonable level of proficiency in the domain which the research targets.

As an example: If one were to develop a fuzzer for JavaScript programs, it must be reasonable to expect that a proficient JavaScript developer is able to a) access, b) understand the concepts of, and c) use the fuzzer.

Use Before Publication

When developing a new general strategy, it is unreasonable to expect that the researcher test every possible affected software or design. If a strategy demonstrates the ability to discover new vulnerabilities in a sample of targets, a collection of the most widely-used pieces of software or designs realistically affected by the strategy should be thoroughly tested to ensure that the publication of the research would not lead to the in-effect public disclosure of any widespread vulnerabilities.

This does not adjust the 360-day deadline for public disclosure, and should not be used as an excuse to delay disclosure.


Ultimately, in security research, we handle vulnerabilities that impact the safety of others. Responsible disclosure is a necessary part of ensuring that our work is used strictly for good.

1Obviously, protect yourself. If you don't have the means to fight this, don't do it on your own; seek legal assistance from your institution or an appropriate agency.